//摘自The Origin of Minds
We are intrinsically social animals.
一个试验：120朵蓝色的花，120朵黄色的花。每朵蓝色的花上都放上两粒糖；而对于黄色的花，其中40朵每朵放上6粒糖，剩余80朵一粒也不放。蜜蜂会如何表现？结果是Bees go to the "safe," constant-yield, blue flowers 85 percent of the time. It needs a reliable glucose fix, rejects the yellow flowers as a bee version of a Las Vegas casino, and concentrates on the blue flowers for its meal ticket.
Bees, like all animals, are energy loss-averse. When their strategy is not working, they revise it long before they are in difficulty.
At any given moment, avoiding loss is more critical than increasing a surplus. (人性化的方式，你可以说这是一种现实的悲观主义)
For a surplus – no matter how large – means that you are safely above a baseline. A loss, however, means you are courting disaster. No organism can afford to persist in behaviors that result in a bioenergetic bank balance in the red. In nature, debt is death.
Look at the key components of the bee’s guidance program.
First, it needs a core instinctual mechanism. An evolved connection between a sensory stimulus in the environment and a specific behavioral response.
In addition to this instinct, the bee needs sensory systems, such as visual and olfactory systems that were previously arbitrary but now become associated with the availability of food.
Third, it needs a plastic neural substrate – like your neocortex – in which these new associative network connections ("adaptive representations") can be formed.
Finally, it needs a neural mechanism to build and modify these representations in light of experience. (Remember, these representations automatically self-adapt with the outcome of each relevant experience, increasing or decreasing their strength as a function of the value of the acquired "goods.")